The Republic of China is a Five-Power-Government nation. The judicial, executive, legislative, examination and control powers divide the administrative power and govern the nation coordinately.
Pursuant to the provisions of the constitution drafted by the Republic of China, the Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organization of the nation, which is in charge of adjudication upon civil, criminal, and administrative cases. It also hears cases regarding disciplinary measures against public functionaries, and also has vested powers to interpret the Constitution and unify the interpretations of laws and orders.
To exercise judicial power, the Judicial Yuan has created the position of Grand Justices, who are vested with authority to interpret the Constitution and to render uniform interpretation of laws and orders, as well as various levels of courts, empowered to adjudicate upon civil and criminal cases.
Under the provisions of the Organic Law of the Court, the judicial system of the nation is comprised of the Supreme Court, High Courts, and District Courts, in which the system of “three-level and three-instance” is adopted.
Since the Supreme Court is the highest tribunal and the court of last resort for civil and criminal cases, this Court decides any dispute concerning the rights of litigants or whether the criminal should be punished conclusively.
The Supreme Court is located in the seat of the Central Government in Taipei. The Court consists of civil and criminal divisions. Each division has a Division Chief Justice and four Associate Justices. The Constitution expressly provides that justices and judges shall hold office for life, and shall, in accordance with law, hear and decide cases independently, free from any interference.